On November 5, 1605, the Gunpowder Plot was thwarted. An anonymous letter tipped it off. Guy Fawkes, who had fought for Spain, joined with conspirators to place 36 barrels of gunpowder in an unused cellar beneath Parliament’s House of Lords.
The plot was to kill King James I, who was speaking in Parliament that day, and return England to a Catholic monarchy. The Gunpowder Plot caused James I to be suspicious and intolerant of any religious group: Catholic, Puritan, Presbyterian, as well as the Pilgrims.
In 1605, St. Vincent de Paul was sailing from Marseille, France, when he was captured by Turks and sold into slavery in Tunis, North Africa. After sharing his faith with one of his master’s wives, she convinced her master to let him escape in 1607. He founded a hospital and an organization to ransom slaves.