Know Your Constitution

Jay Leno, former host of the “Tonight Show”, was known for his street interviews where he would ask people basic questions on U.S. History and the Constitution. Most of those he asked failed miserably. While it made for entertaining television, Leno never addressed the reason why most Americans have no knowledge of basic questions like who we fought in World War II or who is the current Vice-President of the United States nor did he offer any solutions. Camp Constitution participates in Constitutional outreach events where we offer folks a 10-question quiz on the U.S. Constitution and offer all- takers a free pocket copy. Our goal is not to make people feel stupid; our goal is to help Americans become Constitutionally literate.

In the Summer of 2018, I was in Lynchburg, VA where I encountered Jennifer Lewis, Democrat candidate for Congress. I asked Ms. Lewis where one would find the job description for a member of Congress. She gave me that “Deer in the Headlight” look so I rephrased the question: “Where would one find out about the duties, and powers of a member of the U.S. House of Representatives.” Her reply in an unsure tone of voice “Online?” I told her that you can indeed find the info online, but the source is Article One of the U.S. Constitution. I then handed her a pocket copy of the Constitution and suggested that she learn it. Thankfully, she lost her election. It is not just Democrats who are ignorant about the U.S. Constitution; most Republicans seem to have little knowledge of it as well. A few years ago, at a county fair in New Hampshire, I asked former Massachusetts Senator Scott Brown to take the quiz. He had an allergic reaction to the quiz and refused to take it. His voting record as a U.S. Senator clearly demonstrated that he did not know the Constitution, or he willfully ignored his oath of office.   I am happy to report, however, that the 2019 Miss Maine, Carolyn Brady stopped by our info table at the Crown of Maine Balloon Festival in Presque Isle, and received a 90% on our quiz. She would have got a perfect score, but she changed an answer.


Let me challenge the readers to the questions in the quiz. (Answers below)

1, Which amendment protects the right to keep and bear arms?

2, What is the age requirement for the U.S. Senate?

3, Which amendment reads “From each according to his abilities, to each according to his needs”?   (It is not a trick question if you know the Constitution.)

4, Lawmaking abilities are vested in which branch of government?

5, How many amendments does the Constitution have?

6, Which branch of government has the power to regulate education?

7, Where in the Constitution is foreign aid mentioned?

8, How many senators are needed to ratify a treaty?

9, Which branch of Congress initiated the impeachment process?

10, Which branch of government declares war?

Our information tables where we offer this quiz can be found at the regional homeschool conventions, fairs, gun shows, and public venues like Boston Common. The average grade of our quiz is 30%. After seeing it, many people refuse to take it. Homeschoolers tend to score higher than most. Gun show attendees get the first question correct but go downhill after that. Bostonians do abysmal but tourists visiting Boston and foreigners usually score above average.

Since our inception in 2009, we have distributed over 20,000 copies of the Constitution. We have conducted numerous “Know Your Constitution” presentations around the region. If your organization or school would like to host one of speakers, please contact me. We are offering a free pocket copy of the U.S. Constitution and Declaration of Independence to the first 100 readers. E-mail me with your mailing address



1, The Second Amendment. The U.S. Constitution protects the right to keep and bear arms. Rights do not come from government. Our founders made it clear that rights came from God.

2, 30 years old

3, This is not in the U.S. Constitution. It is a plank in the “Communist Manifesto.”

4, Congress.

5, 27

6, None. The U.S. Constitution does not grant any power to the Federal government to regulate education,

7, Foreign aid is not mentioned in the U.S. Constitution which makes it unconstitutional.

8, 2/3rds of those present. A quorum of 51 is needed to do business.

9, The House of Representatives. The House has no power to impeach private citizens which includes former presidents even those they hate.

10, Congress.   The last time that United States declared war was in December of 1941. 1n 1945, Congress passed the U.N. Participation Act unconstitutionally giving the United Nations the power to send our troops in so-called police actions.   A link to a PDF version of the quiz:


Hal Shurtleff is co-founder and director of Camp Constitution. Hal is an Army veteran who spend a tour with the 101st Airborne, and a member of the Sons of the American Revolution. He hosts a weekly radio show which airs on WBCQ in Montecello, Maine. He is married with five children, and one grandchild. A life-long Boston, MA resident, he and his family recently relocated to Alton, NH.




Evacuation Day March 17, 1776


March 17, 2021 marks the 245th anniversary of the British evacuation from Boston and General George Washington’s 1st victory.  After the Battle of Bunker Hill which took place on June 1775, Boston was under siege from the newly formed Continental Army.  In early March of 1776, cannons captured at Ford Ticonderoga transported to Boston, under the leadership of General Henry Knox. and used to fortify Dorchester Heights in South Boston. This allowed the Continental Army to be able to fire cannons unopposed by the British.  After viewing the efforts of the Colonialists,  British General William Howe said “The rebels have done more in one night than my whole army would have done in a month.”  Howe who didn’t want to see a repeat of the Battle of Bunker Hill which was won by the British but at a high cost of lives, decided  to vacate Boston.

Every year, the Henry Knox Color Guard of the Massachusetts Sons of the Revolution, , celebrate this important day in our history with a ceremony on Dorchester Heights.  This year’s ceremony was held a few days ago due to the state’s stringent and unconstitutional Covid 19 restrictions.  Camp Constitution was on hand for the ceremony:




The Social Costs of Carbon Cancelation by Paul Driessen



The social costs of carbon cancelation

Banning carbon-based fuels will impose enormous costs that Team Biden deliberately ignores
Paul Driessen

Fearing that incessant warnings about manmade climate cataclysms would not be enough to end US fossil fuel use, the Obama-Biden Administration instructed a special Interagency Working Group to concoct a “social cost of carbon” concept. The SCC would “scientifically” calibrate the dollar value of damages that a ton of carbon dioxide emitted today in America would inflict on the USA and world in the future.

The price tag was set at $22/ton in 2010, raised to $36/ton in 2013, and just as arbitrarily increased to $40, before finishing the Obama era at $51/ton. President Trump disbanded the IWG and had the SCC slashed to less than $10/ton. Within hours of taking office, President Biden resurrected the working group, reinstituted $51/ton as a starting point, and directed federal agencies to devise a definitive SCC by 2022.

This “updated” version will reflect “recent developments in the science and economics” of climate change, including the costs of other greenhouse gases, the White House said. It will also factor in US commitments under the Paris climate treaty, and especially “considerations of environmental justice and intergenerational equity.” Climate “scientists,” economists, “ethics experts” and “diverse stakeholders” will all participate in the process, which many expect will devise a final SCC of $100 or even $200/ton.

The IWG methodology for developing SCC estimates is so infinitely flexible, so devoid of any rigorous standards, that it could produce almost any estimates that Biden and his climate czars feel is needed. Adding “justice” and “equity” to the mix makes it doubly malleable, doubly prone to abuse by an administration and Democrat Party that are obsessed with “manmade climate change” (even Securities and Exchange Commission and Department of Defense appointees must be committed to ending the “climate crisis”) and are determined to make America “carbon neutral” by 2050.

Social cost of carbon is intended to advance that agenda and a 981-page “CLEAN Future” bill requiring that electricity generators provide 80% carbon-free energy by 2030 and 100% “clean” power by 2035.

Right now, over 80% of all US and global energy come from fossil fuels – and ChinaIndia and other countries are building thousands of new coal-fired power plants, on top of the thousands they already have. So even total cancelation of fossil fuel use and CO2/greenhouse gas emissions by the United States would be imperceptible and irrelevant amid the world’s enormous and increasing levels of both.

Social cost of carbon is a key tactic in a war on reliable, affordable American energy; on jobs, human welfare and human rights; and on US and global lands, wildlife and environmental quality. It will be used to justify raising carbon taxes and prices to at least $160 per ton of CO2 and imposing Covid-on-steroids lockdowns every two years, supposedly to keep average global temperatures from rising more than 1.5 degrees C from pre-industrial/post Little Ice Age levels, which alarmists claim would be catastrophic.

The SCC enables agencies and their allies to attach any price they wish to every conceivable cost of using fossil fuels: hotter and colder, wetter and drier climate and weather; more frequent and intense hurricanes; reduced agricultural output; forest health and wildfires; floods, droughts and water resources; “forced migration” of people and wildlife;  worsening health and disease; flooded coastal cities; even “reduced student learning and worker productivity,” due to warmer planetary temperatures.

The SCC also lets practitioners completely ignore the obvious and enormous benefits of using fossil fuels, and emitting carbon dioxide – such as enhanced productivity via affordable air conditioning in summer and heating in winter; improved forest, grassland and crop growth (and greening deserts) due to more CO2 in the air; greater home and human survival rates amid extreme weather events; and having the jobs, mobility, living standards, healthcare and longevity of modern industrialized life.

In fact, hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide benefits outweigh costs by 50:1, 400:1 or even 500:1! Will Team Biden and others in the anti-hydrocarbon movement acknowledge any of this?

Unless compelled to do so by our courts, the odds are probably 500:1 against it. They won’t even admit that the sun and other natural forces still play dominant roles in climate and weather, as they have throughout history. In their minds, every SCC cost is directly and solely due to fossil fuels. (For a reality check, read Indur GoklanyPatrick MooreGregory WrightstoneMarc Morano and Jennifer Marohasy.)

In fact, eliminating carbon-based energy and carbon dioxide emissions will impose far greater human and ecological costs. It is fossil fuel replacements that will inflict incalculable damage to people and planet.

Replacing coal, oil, natural gas and internal combustion vehicles would require millions of wind turbines, billions of solar panels, billions of battery modules, millions of acres of biofuel plantations, a complete overhaul of electrical grids and infrastructures, on millions of acres. That will require billions of tons of steel, aluminum, copper, lithium, cobalt, rare earth elements, concrete, plastics and other materials – which will require digging up and processing hundreds of billions of tons of ores and minerals.

Under Team Biden, Democrats and Big Green, little of this will take place in the US, under our rigorous laws and regulations. It will be done overseas, in China, Mongolia, Africa, Bolivia – often with slave and child labor, and with few or no workplace safety, air and water pollution, toxic substances, endangered species or other rules. Don’t their health, human rights and environmental quality mean anything?

The technologies may be clean and emission-free in the USA – but won’t be in any of these countries.

Even manufacturing the turbines, panels, batteries and other technologies will be done overseas – again with few or no pollution, health, safety or fair wage rules – because expensive, unreliable, weather-dependent, blackout-prone electricity will send America’s manufacturing and other basic industries into oblivion, along with millions of good jobs. Minority and blue-collar families will be hammered hardest.

The proliferation of “clean, climate-friendly” wind and solar energy will pummel wildlife and habitats. Wind turbines already slaughter a million birds and bats annually in the USA – far in excess of what Big Wind admits to – and that’s from a “measly” 60,000 turbines. The same thing is happening in Europe.

With the best wind sites being along migratory bird flyways, raptor hunting grounds, bat habitats, and Great Lake and sea coasts, the slaughter will get worse with every passing year. I just put new bluebird, hummingbird and wood duck nest houses around my home and neighborhood. It is terribly depressing that such efforts in suburban areas will be overwhelmed by a tsunami of death in our wildlife kingdoms. As forests, grasslands and deserts get torn up for turbines and blanketed by solar panels and biofuel crops, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates and wild plants will also disappear.

Team Biden, Democrats, Big Green and Big Media will loudly deny these realities. They will insist that any wildlife losses are “inadvertent.” As though the wildlife are less dead because it was inadvertent; as though negligible inadvertent deaths from fossil fuel extraction and pipelines were bad, but these are OK.

Wind turbines, solar panels and batteries have short life spans – and are difficult or impossible to recycle. Where will we bury millions of 300-foot-long fiberglass-composite turbine blades? billions of solar panels? Will we just keep sending solar panels overseas, where parents and children burn them in open fires to recover the metals – breathing toxic fumes all day long?

This is just the tip of the iceberg of adverse impacts from SCC/Green New Deal policies. Any honest, accurate, complete social cost of carbon analysis would require that every one of them be fully accounted for, before we make any decisions on fossil fuels. Will oddsmakers even take bets on that happening?

Will courts step up to the plate? Will state attorneys general? Will Republicans become better informed about our energy lifeblood, better organized, less focused on less critical issues – and more willing to mount passionate, principled opposition to this irresponsible insanity?

Or will Democrats just ram this through, because they can, because they control the House, Senate, White House and Deep State Executive Branch – perhaps with bare 1-10 majorities, but arrogant totalitarian control nonetheless?

Paul Driessen is senior policy advisor for the Committee For A Constructive Tomorrow ( and author of books, reports and articles on energy, environmental, climate and human rights issues.

Contact me:



Announcing Camp Constitution’s 1st Annual Ladies “Spring Fling” Retreat Friday April 16 to Sunday April 18



WHEN:               Friday, April 16, 5pm  –  Sunday, April 18, 2pm


71 King Drive;  Plainfield, NH   03781

OFFERINGS:   Friday, April 16 at 5pm:  Ladies Potluck!*

                     Saturday & Sunday:  Devotions… Edith Craft

                        Excellent Menus… Chef Alex 

                                3 Delicious Meals on Saturday; 2 on Sunday

                        Marksman Skill-Building Guest(s)


AT THE TABLE:  “Useful and Common Plants for Our Everyday Lives” …

                                                          Bonnie Manchester and Charmaine Rondon

“A Spring Craft:  Doing a Swag!” Maura Shurtleff

“Planning for Camp Constitution 2021” … Roberta Stewart,

Kathy Mickle, Maura, Edith, Bonnie, Others

“Looking at Events After Shay’s Rebellion” …

COST:                $200.00 / Includes Lodging, Meals, and Supplies!

                   Payments via Camp C.’s PayPal Account, homepage


                        Payments by check payable to:  Camp Constitution.           

                        Mail to Maura Shurtleff, 146 Powder Mill Rd., Alton, NH  03809


RSVP:       YES!  At or call a Contact below.


Contacts for Questions/Comments/Suggestions:  Roberta Stewart  301-233-8613;  Edith Craft 

                                                            732-501-0087;  Maura Shurtleff  857-498-1310


*For Pot-Luck Friday Meals, Crockpots can be plugged in upon arrival.  Cold items can be refrigerated.

**An Agenda will be available with tentative times listed for above activities. 


Every Black Life Matters-the Christian Answer to the Marxist Black Lives Matter

Hal Shurtleff, host of Camp Constitution Radio, recently talked about Every Black Life Matters the Christian response to the Marxist,  terrorist organization Black Lives Matter.

A link to an MP3 version of the show on our Podomatic page:

And from our YouTube Channel:


A Challenge to Well-Intentioned White Liberals

The letter below was  recently send to local newspapers in Lexington, MA by Rev. Steve Craft who serves as Camp Constitution’s chaplain, and an instructor.  Lexington is a typical liberal Massachusetts town with a black population of a little over 1%.  Meant for the people of Lexington, we think that this open letter should be printed in every liberal town in the United States.

Open Letter to Citizens of Lexington, MA

 Dear Neighbors of Lexington, MA:

My wife and I moved to Lexington in May of 2020 from New Jersey, and we love living in the town where the “Shot Heard Around the World” was fired.  In the short time we have been here, we have acquired many good friends and have an excellent relationship with the Lexington Police Department.  We are even on a first- name basis with our letter carrier. Recently, a young lady who was behind me in a local supermarket offered to pay for my items.  I was quite impressed.

We are concerned, however, with the number of “Black Lives Matter” signs that we see in front of some of our neighbors’ lawns.  As a Black man who has experienced racism over my 77 years, I appreciate your sentiment.   But the organization behind Black Lives Matter is a militant organization with members that have been engaged in massive violence.  Its founders brag about their Marxist ideology.  They advocate the end of the Western concept of the family and defunding the police.  These are positions that are rejected by the overwhelmingly majority of Black Americans.   Black Lives Matter leaders are silent on Black-on-Black crime which claims over 90 percent of the murders in the Black community.   In addition, Black Lives Matter supports abortion.  In New York City alone, there are more Black babies being aborted than are being born every day.

 An answer to Black Lives Matter and my challenge:

I recently became aware of an organization called Every Black Life Matters:

Their Mission Statement is one in which I believe all Americans of goodwill can support:

“Our mission is to protect black life from conception to death by confronting injustice and deconstructing

barriers  inside and outside the black community through a national platform of training, networked resources,

community  organizing and faith building.”

My challenge to my well-intentioned neighbors here in Lexington is to post a sign which reads:  Every Black Life Matters!


Reverend Steven Louis Craft, M.Div


John Hancock’s Boston Massacre Oration

Today, March 5, 2021 marks the 251 anniversary of the Boston Massacre.  This speech by John Hancock was made on March 5, 1774 to commemorate the event.


John Hancock Boston Massacre Oration

Men, Brethren, Fathers, and Fellow-Countrymen:

The attentive gravity; the venerable appearance of this crowded audience; the dignity which I behold in the countenances of so many in this great assembly; the solemnity of the occasion upon which we have met together, joined to a consideration of the part I am to take in the important business of this day, fill me with an awe hitherto unknown, and heighten the sense which I have ever had of my unworthiness to fill this sacred desk. But, allured by the call of some of my respected fellow-citizens, with whose request it is always my greatest pleasure to comply, I almost forgot my want of ability to perform what they required. In this situation I find my only support in assuring myself that a generous people will not severely censure what they know was well intended, though its want of merit should prevent their being able to applaud it. And I pray that my sincere attachment to the interest of my country, and the hearty detestation of every design formed against her liberties, may be admitted as some apology for my appearance in this place.

Boston Massacre by Paul Revere

I have always, from my earliest youth, rejoiced in the felicity of my fellow-men; and have ever considered it as the indispensable able duty of every member of society to promote, as far as in him lies, the prosperity of every individual, but more especially of the community to which he belongs; and also, as a faithful subject of the State, to use his utmost endeavors to detect, and having detected, strenuously to oppose every traitorous plot which its enemies may devise for its destruction. Security to the persons and properties of the governed is so obviously the design and end of civil government, that to attempt a logical proof of it would be like burning tapers at noonday, to assist the sun in enlightening the world; and it cannot be either virtuous or honorable to attempt to support a government of which this is not the great and principal basis; and it is to the last degree vicious and infamous to attempt to support a government which manifestly tends to render the persons and properties of the governed insecure. Some boast of being friends to government; I am a friend to righteous government, to a government founded upon the principles of reason and justice; but I glory in publicly avowing my eternal enmity to tyranny. Is the present system, which the British administration have adopted for the government of the Colonies, a righteous government – or is it tyranny? Here suffer me to ask (and would to heaven there could be an answer!) what tenderness, what regard, respect, or consideration has Great Britain shown, in their late transactions, for the security of the persons or properties of the inhabitants of the Colonies? Or rather what have they omitted doing to destroy that security? They have declared that they have ever had, and of right ought ever to have, full power to make laws of sufficient validity to bind the Colonies in all cases whatever. They have exercised this pretended right by imposing a tax upon us without our consent; and lest we should show some reluctance at parting with our property, her fleets and armies are sent to enforce their mad pretensions. The town of Boston, ever faithful to the British Crown, has been invested by a British fleet; the troops of George III. have crossed the wide Atlantic, not to engage an enemy, but to assist a band of traitors in trampling on the rights and liberties of his most loyal subjects in America – those rights and liberties which, as a father, he ought ever to regard, and as a king, he is bound, in honor, to defend from violation, even at the risk of his own life.

Let not the history of the illustrious house of Brunswick inform posterity that a king, descended from that glorious monarch George II., once sent his British subjects to conquer and enslave his subjects in America. But be perpetual infamy entailed upon that villain who dared to advise his master to such execrable measures; for it was easy to foresee the consequences which so naturally followed upon sending troops into America to enforce obedience to acts of the British Parliament, which neither God nor man ever empowered them to make. It was reasonable to expect that troops, who knew the errand they were sent upon, would treat the people whom they were to subjugate, with a cruelty and haughtiness which too often buries the honorable character of a soldier in the disgraceful name of an unfeeling ruffian. The troops, upon their first arrival, took possession of our Senate House, and pointed their cannon against the judgment hall, and even continued them there whilst the supreme court of judicature for this province was actually sitting to decide upon the lives and fortunes of the King’s subjects. Our streets nightly resounded with the noise of riot and debauchery; our peaceful citizens were hourly exposed to shameful insults, and often felt the effects of their violence and outrage. But this was not all: as though they thought it not enough to violate our civil rights, they endeavored to deprive us of the enjoyment of our religious privileges, to vitiate our morals, and thereby render us deserving of destruction. Hence, the rude din of arms which broke in upon your solemn devotions in your temples, on that day hallowed by heaven, and set apart by God himself for his peculiar worship. Hence, impious oaths and blasphemies so often tortured your unaccustomed ear. Hence, all the arts which idleness and luxury could invent were used to betray our youth of one sex into extravagance and effeminacy, and of the other to infamy and ruin; and did they not succeed but too well? Did not a reverence for religion sensibly decay? Did not our infants almost learn to lisp out curses before they knew their horrid import? Did not our youth forget they were Americans, and, regardless of the admonitions of the wise and aged, servilely copy from their tyrants those vices which finally must overthrow the empire of Great Britain? And must I be compelled to acknowledge knowledge that even the noblest, fairest, part of all the lower creation did not entirely escape the cursed snare? When virtue has once erected her throne within the female breast, it is upon so solid a basis that nothing is able to expel the heavenly inhabitant. But have there not been some few, indeed, I hope, whose youth and inexperience have rendered them a prey to wretches, whom, upon the least reflection, they would have despised and hated as foes to God and their country? I fear there have been some such unhappy instances, or why have I seen an honest father clothed with shame; or why a virtuous mother drowned in tears?


But I forbear, and come reluctantly to the transactions of that dismal night, when in such quick succession we felt the extremes of grief, astonishment, and rage; when heaven in anger, for a dreadful moment, suffered hell to take the reins; when Satan, with his chosen band, opened the sluices of New England’s blood, and sacrilegiously polluted our land with the dead bodies of her guiltless sons! Let this sad tale of death never be told without a tear; let not the heaving bosom cease to burn with a manly indignation at the barbarous story, through the long tracts of future time; let every parent tell the shameful story to his listening children until tears of pity glisten in their eyes, and boiling passions shake their tender frames; and whilst the anniversary of that ill-fated night is kept a jubilee in the grim court of pandemonium, let all America join in one common prayer to heaven that the inhuman, unprovoked murders of the fifth of March, 1770, planned by Hillsborough, and a knot of treacherous knaves in Boston, and executed by the cruel hand of Preston and his sanguinary coadjutors, may ever stand in history without a parallel. But what, my countrymen, withheld the ready arm of vengeance from executing instant justice on the vile assassins? Perhaps you feared promiscuous carnage might ensue, and that the innocent might share the fate of those who had performed the infernal deed. But were not all guilty? Were you not too tender of the lives of those who came to fix a yoke on your necks? But I must not too severely blame a fault, which great souls only can commit. May that magnificence of spirit which scorns the low pursuits of malice, may that generous compassion which often preserves from ruin, even a guilty villain, forever actuate the noble bosoms of Americans! But let not the miscreant host vainly imagine that we feared their arms. No; them we despised; we dread nothing but slavery. Death is the creature of a poltroon’s brains; ’tis immortality to sacrifice ourselves for the salvation of our country. We fear not death. That gloomy night, the pale-faced moon, and the affrighted stars that hurried through the sky, can witness that we fear not death. Our hearts which, at the recollection, glow with rage that four revolving years have scarcely taught us to restrain, can witness that we fear not death; and happy it is for those who dared to insult us, that their naked bones are not now piled up an everlasting lasting monument of Massachusetts’ bravery. But they retired, they fled, and in that flight they found their only safety. We then expected that the hand of public justice would soon inflict that punishment upon the murderers, which, by the laws of God and man, they had incurred. But let the unbiased pen of a Robertson, or perhaps of some equally famed American, conduct this trial before the great tribunal of succeeding generations. And though the murderers may escape the just resentment of an enraged people; though drowsy justice, intoxicated by the poisonous draught prepared for her cup, still nods upon her rotten seat, yet be assured such complicated crimes will meet their due reward. Tell me, ye bloody butchers! Ye villains high and low! ye wretches who contrived, as well as you who executed the inhuman deed! do you not feel the goads and stings of conscious guilt pierce through your savage bosoms? Though some of you may think yourselves exalted to a height that bids defiance to human justice, and others shroud yourselves beneath the mask of hypocrisy, and build your hopes of safety on the low arts of cunning, chicanery, and falsehood, yet do you not sometimes feel the gnawings of that worm which never dies? Do not the injured shades of Maverick, Gray, Caldwell, Attucks, and Carr attend you in your solitary walks, arrest you even in the midst of your debaucheries, and fill even your dreams with terror?

Ye dark designing knaves, ye murderers, parricides! how dare you tread upon the earth which has drunk in the blood of slaughtered innocents, shed by your wicked hands? How dare you breathe that air which wafted to the ear of heaven the groans of those who fell a sacrifice to your accursed ambition? But if the laboring earth cloth not expand her jaws; if the air you breathe is not commissioned to be the minister of death; yet, hear it and tremble! The eye of heaven penetrates the darkest chambers of the soul, traces the leading clue through all the labyrinths which your industrious folly has devised; and you, however you may have screened yourselves from human eyes, must be arraigned, must lift your hands, red with the blood of those whose death you have procured, at the tremendous bar of God!

But I gladly quit the gloomy theme of death, and leave you to improve the thought of that important day when our naked souls must stand before that Being from whom nothing can be hid. I would not dwell too long upon the horrid effects which have already followed from quartering regular troops in this town. Let our misfortunes teach posterity to guard against such evils for the future. Standing armies are sometimes (I would by no means say generally, much less universally) composed of persons who have rendered themselves unfit to live in civil society; who have no other motives of conduct than those which a desire of the present gratification of their passions suggests; who have no property in any country; men who have given up their own liberties, and envy those who enjoy liberty; who are equally indifferent to the glory of a George or a Louis; who, for the addition of one penny a day to their wages, would desert from the Christian cross and fight under the crescent of the Turkish Sultan. From such men as these, what has not a State to fear? With such as these, usurping Caesar passed the Rubicon; with such as these, he humbled mighty Rome, and forced the mistress of the world to own a master in a traitor. These are the men whom sceptred robbers now employ to frustrate the designs of God, and render vain the bounties which his gracious hand pours indiscriminately upon his creatures. By these the miserable slaves in Turkey, Persia, and many other extensive countries, are rendered truly wretched, though their air is salubrious, and their soil luxuriously fertile. By these, France and Spain, though blessed by nature with all that administers to the convenience of life, have been reduced to that contemptible state in which they now appear; and by these, Britain, – but if I were possessed of the gift of prophesy, I dare not, except by divine command, unfold the leaves on which the destiny of that once powerful kingdom is inscribed.

But since standing armies are so hurtful to a State, perhaps my countrymen may demand some substitute, some other means of rendering us secure against the incursions of a foreign enemy. But can you be one moment at a loss? Will not a well-disciplined militia afford you ample security against foreign foes? We want not courage; it is discipline alone in which we are exceeded by the most formidable troops that ever trod the earth. Surely our hearts flutter no more at the sound of war than did those of the immortal band of Persia, the Macedonian phalanx, the invincible Roman legions, the Turkish janissaries, the gens d’armes of France, or the well-known grenadiers of Britain. A well-disciplined militia is a safe, an honorable guard to a community like this, whose inhabitants are by nature brave, and are laudably tenacious of that freedom in which they were born. From a well-regulated militia we have nothing to fear; their interest is the same with that of the State. When a country is invaded, the militia are ready to appear in its defense; they march into the field with that fortitude which a consciousness of the justice of their cause inspires; they do not jeopard their lives for a master who considers them only as the instruments of his ambition, and whom they regard only as the daily dispenser of the scanty pittance of bread and water. No; they fight for their houses, their lands, for their wives, their children; for all who claim the tenderest names, and are held dearest in their hearts; they fight pro aris et focis, for their liberty, and for themselves, and for their God. And let it not offend if I say that no militia ever appeared in more flourishing condition than that of this province now cloth; and pardon me if I say, of this town in particular. I mean not to boast; I would not excite envy, but manly emulation. We have all one common cause; let it, therefore, be our only contest, who shall most contribute to the security of the liberties of America. And may the same kind Providence which has watched over this country from her infant state still enable us to defeat our enemies! I cannot here forbear noticing the signal manner in which the designs of those who wish not well to us have been discovered. The dark deeds of a treacherous cabal have been brought to public view. You now know the serpents who, whilst cherished in your bosoms, were darting the envenomed stings into the vitals of the constitution. But the representatives of the people have fixed a mark on these ungrateful monsters, which, though it may not make them so secure as Cain of old, yet renders them, at least, as infamous. Indeed, it would be effrontive to the tutelar deity of this country even to despair of saving it from all the snares which human policy can lay.

Surely you never will tamely suffer this country to be a den of thieves. Remember, my friends, from whom you sprang. Let not a meanness of spirit, unknown to those whom you boast of as your fathers, excite a thought to the dishonor of your mothers I conjure you, by all that is dear, by all that is honorable, by all that is sacred, not only that ye pray, but that ye act; that, if necessary, ye fight, and even die, for the prosperity of our Jerusalem. Break in sunder, with noble disdain, the bonds with which the Philistines have bound you. Suffer not yourselves to be betrayed, by the soft arts of luxury and effeminacy, into the pit digged for your destruction. Despise the glare of wealth. That people who pay greater respect to a wealthy villain than to an honest, upright man in poverty, almost deserve to be enslaved; they plainly show that wealth, however it may be acquired, is, in their esteem, to be preferred to virtue.

Camp Constitution Media was on hand last year to observe a wreath laying ceremony  at the graves of the victims of the Boston Massacre: